Castles and Ramparts of Archidona
One of the first peoples known to have settled in the area were the Turdulos, who came around 1500 B.C. Later, the Phoenicians gave the town the Punic name "Escua", meaning “main head”, and it is they who are believed to have built the walls which made it one of the most difficult settlements to conquer. In Roman times, Archidona was called "Arx Domina", finally receiving the title "Medina Arxiduna", the forerunner of its present-day name, from the Arabs.
Archidona saw the dawn of one of the most brilliant and enlightened periods in Spanish history with the implantation of the Omeya dynasty in Andalusia. Another significant fact in the town’s history is that it was at the centre of the Muladî and Berber rebellion, better known as the Mozarabe Uprising, led by Omar IBM Hafsun in the late IX and early X century. The defence structure that still stands on a mountain slope dates back to these times.